Posted on July 27, 2014

Reblogged from: rne scribes

Source: davidroads

Notes: 55 notes

scienceyoucanlove:

How Dying Works

by 

The Dying Process

As technology helps us to live longer, it will also shape how we die. With a higher-brain definition of death, you’re gone when your personality is. With a whole-brain definition of death, you’ve lost the ability to breathe on your own again. Each breath provides the oxygen necessary for survival to the rest of the body. Very simply, dying starts to happen when your body doesn’t get the oxygen it needs to survive.

Different cells die at different speeds, so the length of the dying process depends on which cells are deprived of oxygen. The brainrequires a tremendous amount of oxygen but keeps very little in reserve, so any cutoff of oxygen to the brain will result in cell death within three to seven minutes; that’s why a stroke can kill so quickly. When blood is cut off from the heart, a heart attack occurs and can also take a life fairly swiftly. But since our bodies aren’t designed to last forever, sometimes the body’s systems just simply wear out. When someone dies of extremely old age, and the family is gathered around the deathbed, you’re basically observing the breakdown of these systems.

There are some outward signs that these systems are slowing down. The person will begin sleeping more to conserve the little energy that’s left. When that energy is gone, the individual may lose the desire to eat and then to drink. Swallowing becomes difficult and the mouth gets very dry, so forcing the person to eat or drink could cause choking. The dying person loses bladder and bowel control, but accidents will occur less frequently as those gastrointestinal functions shut down as well and he or she consumes less.

Any ­pain that the dying person feels at this point can usually be managed by a doctor in some way, but it can be unbelievably difficult to watch these final steps of a person’s life. The stage right before a person dies is called the agonal phase. The dying person is often disoriented, and it will seem like he or she can’t get comfortable. It will also seem, disconcertingly, that the person can’t catch a breath. There may be agonizing pauses between loud, labored breaths. If there is fluid built up in the lungs, then that congestion will cause a sound known as the death rattle. As the cells inside a person lose their connections, the person may start convulsing or having muscle spasms.

We can’t know exactly how the person is feeling at this point, though those who have had near-death experiences (NDE) seem to agree that the process isn’t painful. NDEs appear to have some common characteristics, including a feeling of peace and well-being, a sense of separation from the physical body and a sensation of walking through darkness to enter light. You can read more about NDEs in How Near-death Experiences Work.

Some doctors think that a near-death experience might be due to endorphins that the body releases at the actual moment of death [source: Nuland]. When the heartbeat and breath stop, the person is clinically dead. There’s no circulation, and no new reserves of oxygen are reaching cells. However, clinical death also denotes that this is a point where the process is reversible, by means of CPR, a transfusion or a ventilator.

The point of no return is biological death, which begins about four to six minutes after clinical death. After the heartbeat stops, it only takes that long for brain cells to begin dying from lack of oxygen. Resuscitation is impossible at this point.

What you think has happened to the essence of the person at this point is dependent on your religious and cultural beliefs. But as our examination of the postmortem body on the next page will reveal, there’s not a lot of time for sitting around and staring at the corpse.

read more from HowStuffWorks

photo one is  Death nature with shooting gear and flowers I by Jean Baptiste Oudry through wiki 

the second is Death of Cato by Gioacchino Assereto through wiki

ughjxnna:

OH MY GOD THIS CARD

Posted on July 27, 2014

Reblogged from:

Source: ughjxnna

Notes: 171,838 notes

Tags: this would be me,

skyyylynn:

paytertots:

This weekend, two students in my school committed suicide.  A few upperclassmen got thousands of sticky notes and wrote nice sayings on them and put one on every single locker in the school in hopes of lifting everyone’s spirits and making sure everyone knows that they aren’t alone

This makes me happy.

Posted on July 25, 2014

Reblogged from: Shychemist

Source: paytertots

Notes: 291,413 notes

Be careful who you call your friends. I’d rather have 4 quarters than 100 pennies

— Al Capone (via absea)

Posted on July 25, 2014

Reblogged from:

Source: nufsed310

Notes: 114,226 notes

A DIALOGUE WITH SARAH, AGED 3: IN WHICH IT IS SHOWN THAT IF YOUR DAD IS A CHEMISTRY PROFESSOR, ASKING “WHY” CAN BE DANGEROUS

  • SARAH: Daddy, were you in the shower?
  • DAD: Yes, I was in the shower.
  • SARAH: Why?
  • DAD: I was dirty. The shower gets me clean.
  • SARAH: Why?
  • DAD: Why does the shower get me clean?
  • SARAH: Yes.
  • DAD: Because the water washes the dirt away when I use soap.
  • SARAH: Why?
  • DAD: Why do I use soap?
  • SARAH: Yes.
  • DAD: Because the soap grabs the dirt and lets the water wash it off.
  • SARAH: Why?
  • DAD: Why does the soap grab the dirt?
  • SARAH: Yes.
  • DAD: Because soap is a surfactant.
  • SARAH: Why?
  • DAD: Why is soap a surfactant?
  • SARAH: Yes.
  • DAD: That is an EXCELLENT question. Soap is a surfactant because it forms water-soluble micelles that trap the otherwise insoluble dirt and oil particles.
  • SARAH: Why?
  • DAD: Why does soap form micelles?
  • SARAH: Yes.
  • DAD: Soap molecules are long chains with a polar, hydrophilic head and a non-polar, hydrophobic tail. Can you say ‘hydrophilic’?
  • SARAH: Aidrofawwic
  • DAD: And can you say ‘hydrophobic’?
  • SARAH: Aidrofawwic
  • DAD: Excellent! The word ‘hydrophobic’ means that it avoids water.
  • SARAH: Why?
  • DAD: Why does it mean that?
  • SARAH: Yes.
  • DAD: It’s Greek! ‘Hydro’ means water and ‘phobic’ means ‘fear of’. ‘Phobos’ is fear. So ‘hydrophobic’ means ‘afraid of water’.
  • SARAH: Like a monster?
  • DAD: You mean, like being afraid of a monster?
  • SARAH: Yes.
  • DAD: A scary monster, sure. If you were afraid of a monster, a Greek person would say you were gorgophobic.
  • (pause)
  • SARAH: (rolls her eyes) I thought we were talking about soap.
  • DAD: We are talking about soap.
  • (longish pause)
  • SARAH: Why?
  • DAD: Why do the molecules have a hydrophilic head and a hydrophobic tail?
  • SARAH: Yes.
  • DAD: Because the C-O bonds in the head are highly polar, and the C-H bonds in the tail are effectively non-polar.
  • SARAH: Why?
  • DAD: Because while carbon and hydrogen have almost the same electronegativity, oxygen is far more electronegative, thereby polarizing the C-O bonds.
  • SARAH: Why?
  • DAD: Why is oxygen more electronegative than carbon and hydrogen?
  • SARAH: Yes.
  • DAD: That’s complicated. There are different answers to that question, depending on whether you’re talking about the Pauling or Mulliken electronegativity scales. The Pauling scale is based on homo- versus heteronuclear bond strength differences, while the Mulliken scale is based on the atomic properties of electron affinity and ionization energy. But it really all comes down to effective nuclear charge. The valence electrons in an oxygen atom have a lower energy than those of a carbon atom, and electrons shared between them are held more tightly to the oxygen, because electrons in an oxygen atom experience a greater nuclear charge and therefore a stronger attraction to the atomic nucleus! Cool, huh?
  • (pause)
  • SARAH: I don’t get it.
  • DAD: That’s OK. Neither do most of my students.
  • (The Dad is Stephen McNeil, "an Assistant Professor of Chemistry at the University of British Columbia Okanagan in Kelowna, British Columbia.")

blue-lights-and-tea:

Yes we all get a bit confused with this! So a useful way to remember.

Posted on July 20, 2014

Reblogged from: Blue Lights & Tea

Notes: 430 notes

Tags: medicine,

Posted on July 20, 2014

Reblogged from:

Source: the-personal-quotes

Notes: 10,093 notes

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